Reporting of the absence of cases of a disease under surveillance; this is crucial for

syndromic surveillance and ensures that participants have not merely forgotten to



The agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international health.

Abbreviated WHO. Also known as Organisation Mondiale de la Sante (OMS). WHO is

the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. It

is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health

research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy

options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health



Insiders telling the media what they know about improper practices by others, usually

in the same company, with the hope of improving the situation. Calling attention to

actions or practices that are inconsistent with established organizational norms or

policies. (1)


(1) Glossary of communication, University of Jyväskylä



The period during which an outbreak or epidemic occurs either within a community or

aggregated across a larger geographical area. The disease wave includes the time

during which the disease occurrence increases, peaks and declines back towards



The degree to which a socio-economic system is either susceptible or resilient to the

impact of natural hazards and related technological and environmental disasters. The

degree of vulnerability is determined by a combination of several factors including

hazard awareness, the condition of human settlements and infrastructure, public policy

and administration, and organized abilities in all fields of disaster management.

Poverty is also one of the main causes of vulnerability in most parts of the world.



A microorganism that is smaller than a bacterium that cannot grow or reproduce apart

from a living cell. A virus invades living cells and uses their chemical machinery to

keep itself alive and to replicate itself. It may reproduce with fidelity or with errors

(mutations); this ability to mutate is responsible for the ability of some viruses to

change slightly in each infected person, making treatment difficult. Viruses cause many

common human infections and are also responsible for a number of rare diseases.


Extremely noxious, damaging, deleterious, and disease causing (pathogenic); marked

by a rapid, severe, and malignant course; poisonous.


The degree of pathogenicity of an infectious agent, indicated by case-fatality rates

and/or the ability of the agent to invade and damage tissues of the host.



The formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells.

Viruses must first get into the cell before viral replication can occur. From the

perspective of the virus, the purpose of viral replication is to allow production and

survival of its kind. By generating abundant copies of its genome and packaging these

copies into viruses, the virus is able to continue infecting new hosts.

Replication processes in viruses are greatly varied and use the host cell machinery in


A syndrome caused by infection with one of a number of viruses that can cause

increased permeability of the blood vessels resulting in bleeding into the skin,

internally, or from the mouth or other orifices. The bleeding is usually not lifethreatening.

Other signs and symptoms of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) may also

include high fever, weakness, dizziness, and myalgia. In severe cases, there may be

shock, coma, delirium, seizures , and death. The viruses that cause VHF belong to four



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MMLAP and other EU Projects

Health system analysis to support capacity development in response to the threat of pandemic influenza in Asia
Making society an active participant in water adaptation to global change
Public Participation in Developing a Common Framework for Assessment and Management of Sustainable Innovation
Engaging all of Europe in shaping a desirable and sustainable future
Expect the unexpected and know how to respond
Driving innovation in crisis management for European resilience
Effective communication in outbreak management: development of an evidence-based tool for Europe
Solutions to improve CBRNe resilience
Network for Communicable Disease Control in Southern Europe and Mediterranean Countries
Developing the framework for an epidemic forecast infrastructure
Strengthening of the national surveillance system for communicable diseases
Surveillance of vaccine preventable hepatitis
European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action
European network for highly infectious disease
Dedicated surveillance network for surveillance and control of vaccine preventable diseases in the EU
Modelling the spread of pandemic influenza and strategies for its containment and mitigation
Cost-effectiveness assessment of european influenza human pandemic alert and response strategies
Bridging the gap between science, stakeholders and policy makers
Promotion of immunization for health professionals in Europe
Towards inclusive research programming for sustainable food innovations
Addressing chronic diseases and healthy ageing across the life cycle
Medical ecosystem – personalized event-based surveillance
Studying the many and varied economic, social, legal and ethical aspects of the recent developments on the Internet, and their consequences for the individual and society at large
Get involved in the responsible marine research and innovation
Knowledge-based policy-making on issues involving science, technology and innovation, mainly based upon the practices in Parliamentary Technology Assessment
Assessment of the current pandemic preparedness and response tools, systems and practice at national, EU and global level in priority areas
Analysis of innovative public engagement tools and instruments for dynamic governance in the field of Science in Society
Public Engagement with Research And Research Engagement with Society
Computing Veracity – the Fourth Challenge of Big Data
Providing infrastructure, co-ordination and integration of existing clinical research networks on epidemics and pandemics
Promote vaccinations among migrant population in Europe
Creating mechanisms for effectively tackling the scientific and technology related challenges faced by society
Improve the quality of indoor air, keeping it free from radon
Improving respect of ethics principles and laws in research and innovation, in line with the evolution of technologies and societal concerns
Investigating how cities in the West securitise against global pandemics
Creating a structured dialogue and mutual learning with citizens and urban actors by setting up National Networks in 10 countries across Europe
Identifying how children can be change agents in the Science and Society relationship
Establishing an open dialogue between stakeholders concerning synthetic biology’s potential benefits and risks
Transparent communication in Epidemics: Learning Lessons from experience, delivering effective Messages, providing Evidence