The other term is plague. An infectious disease of animals (rodents and their fleas) and

humans, due to a bacteria called Yersinia pestis. Also called Black Death and Black


The bubonic plague is transmitted to humans from infected rats by the oriental rat flea.

It is named for the characteristic feature of bubones (painfully enlarged lymph nodes)

in the groin, armpits, neck, and elsewhere. Other symptoms of bubonic plague include

headache, fever, chills, and weakness. Bubonic plague can lead to gangrene (tissue

death) of the fingers, toes, and nose.

Pneumonic plague: Infection of the lungs by Yersina pestis. The first signs of the

pneumonic plague are fever, headache, weakness, and cough productive of bloody or

watery sputum. The pneumonia progresses over 2 to 4 days and may cause septic

shock and, without early treatment, death. Person-to-person transmission of

pneumonic plague occurs through respiratory droplets, which can only infect those who

have face-to-face contact with the person who is ill. Early treatment of pneumonic

plague is essential. Several antibiotics are effective, including streptomycin,

tetracycline, and chloramphenicol. There is no vaccine against plague but prophylactic

antibiotic treatment for 7 days will protect persons who have had face-to-face contact

with infected patients. The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) has

classified Yersina pestis as a high-priority (Category A) bioterrorism agent.


MMLAP and other EU Projects

Health system analysis to support capacity development in response to the threat of pandemic influenza in Asia
Making society an active participant in water adaptation to global change
Public Participation in Developing a Common Framework for Assessment and Management of Sustainable Innovation
Engaging all of Europe in shaping a desirable and sustainable future
Expect the unexpected and know how to respond
Driving innovation in crisis management for European resilience
Effective communication in outbreak management: development of an evidence-based tool for Europe
Solutions to improve CBRNe resilience
Network for Communicable Disease Control in Southern Europe and Mediterranean Countries
Developing the framework for an epidemic forecast infrastructure
Strengthening of the national surveillance system for communicable diseases
Surveillance of vaccine preventable hepatitis
European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action
European network for highly infectious disease
Dedicated surveillance network for surveillance and control of vaccine preventable diseases in the EU
Modelling the spread of pandemic influenza and strategies for its containment and mitigation
Cost-effectiveness assessment of european influenza human pandemic alert and response strategies
Bridging the gap between science, stakeholders and policy makers
Promotion of immunization for health professionals in Europe
Towards inclusive research programming for sustainable food innovations
Addressing chronic diseases and healthy ageing across the life cycle
Medical ecosystem – personalized event-based surveillance
Studying the many and varied economic, social, legal and ethical aspects of the recent developments on the Internet, and their consequences for the individual and society at large
Get involved in the responsible marine research and innovation
Knowledge-based policy-making on issues involving science, technology and innovation, mainly based upon the practices in Parliamentary Technology Assessment
Assessment of the current pandemic preparedness and response tools, systems and practice at national, EU and global level in priority areas
Analysis of innovative public engagement tools and instruments for dynamic governance in the field of Science in Society
Public Engagement with Research And Research Engagement with Society
Computing Veracity – the Fourth Challenge of Big Data
Providing infrastructure, co-ordination and integration of existing clinical research networks on epidemics and pandemics
Promote vaccinations among migrant population in Europe
Creating mechanisms for effectively tackling the scientific and technology related challenges faced by society
Improve the quality of indoor air, keeping it free from radon
Improving respect of ethics principles and laws in research and innovation, in line with the evolution of technologies and societal concerns
Investigating how cities in the West securitise against global pandemics
Creating a structured dialogue and mutual learning with citizens and urban actors by setting up National Networks in 10 countries across Europe
Identifying how children can be change agents in the Science and Society relationship
Establishing an open dialogue between stakeholders concerning synthetic biology’s potential benefits and risks
Transparent communication in Epidemics: Learning Lessons from experience, delivering effective Messages, providing Evidence