Also known as variola. Smallpox is an acute contagious disease caused by the variola

virus, a member of the orthopoxvirus family. It was one of the world's most devastating

diseases known to humanity. It was declared eradicated in 1980 following a global

immunization campaign led by the World Health Organization.

Smallpox was transmitted from person to person via infective droplets during close

contact with infected symptomatic people. Vaccine administered up to 4 days after

exposure provided protective immunity and was preventing infection and lessening the

severity of the disease. The last known natural case was in Somalia in 1977. Since

then, the only known cases were caused by a laboratory accident in 1978 in

Birmingham, England, which killed one person and caused a limited outbreak.

Because of its high case-fatality rates and transmissibility and because people haven't

been vaccinated against it in years, smallpox now represents a serious bioterrorist

threat category A. The incubation period is about 12 days (range: 7-17 days) following

exposure. Initial symptoms include high fever, fatigue, headaches, and backaches. A

characteristic rash, most prominent on the face, arms, and legs, follows in 2 to 3 days.

The rash starts with flat red lesions that evolve in 2 to 3 days. Lesions become pusfilled

and begin to crust early in the second week. Scabs develop and then separate

and fall off after about 3 to 4 weeks. The majority of patients with smallpox recover, but

death occurs in up to 30 percent of cases. Smallpox is spread from one person to

another via infected saliva droplets as occurs during face to face contact. Persons with

smallpox are most infectious during the first week of illness because that is when the

largest amount of virus is present in saliva. However, some risk of transmission lasts

until all scabs have fallen off.

MMLAP and other EU Projects

Health system analysis to support capacity development in response to the threat of pandemic influenza in Asia
Making society an active participant in water adaptation to global change
Public Participation in Developing a Common Framework for Assessment and Management of Sustainable Innovation
Engaging all of Europe in shaping a desirable and sustainable future
Expect the unexpected and know how to respond
Driving innovation in crisis management for European resilience
Effective communication in outbreak management: development of an evidence-based tool for Europe
Solutions to improve CBRNe resilience
Network for Communicable Disease Control in Southern Europe and Mediterranean Countries
Developing the framework for an epidemic forecast infrastructure
Strengthening of the national surveillance system for communicable diseases
Surveillance of vaccine preventable hepatitis
European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action
European network for highly infectious disease
Dedicated surveillance network for surveillance and control of vaccine preventable diseases in the EU
Modelling the spread of pandemic influenza and strategies for its containment and mitigation
Cost-effectiveness assessment of european influenza human pandemic alert and response strategies
Bridging the gap between science, stakeholders and policy makers
Promotion of immunization for health professionals in Europe
Towards inclusive research programming for sustainable food innovations
Addressing chronic diseases and healthy ageing across the life cycle
Medical ecosystem – personalized event-based surveillance
Studying the many and varied economic, social, legal and ethical aspects of the recent developments on the Internet, and their consequences for the individual and society at large
Get involved in the responsible marine research and innovation
Knowledge-based policy-making on issues involving science, technology and innovation, mainly based upon the practices in Parliamentary Technology Assessment
Assessment of the current pandemic preparedness and response tools, systems and practice at national, EU and global level in priority areas
Analysis of innovative public engagement tools and instruments for dynamic governance in the field of Science in Society
Public Engagement with Research And Research Engagement with Society
Computing Veracity – the Fourth Challenge of Big Data
Providing infrastructure, co-ordination and integration of existing clinical research networks on epidemics and pandemics
Promote vaccinations among migrant population in Europe
Creating mechanisms for effectively tackling the scientific and technology related challenges faced by society
Improve the quality of indoor air, keeping it free from radon
Improving respect of ethics principles and laws in research and innovation, in line with the evolution of technologies and societal concerns
Investigating how cities in the West securitise against global pandemics
Creating a structured dialogue and mutual learning with citizens and urban actors by setting up National Networks in 10 countries across Europe
Identifying how children can be change agents in the Science and Society relationship
Establishing an open dialogue between stakeholders concerning synthetic biology’s potential benefits and risks
Transparent communication in Epidemics: Learning Lessons from experience, delivering effective Messages, providing Evidence